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FAULTY “BRAIN SWITCH” DETERMINES OBESITY Obesity is considered as a disease in this New World. It has become a pandemic affecting every Nation. According to data collected in 2014 from the World Health Organization, more than 600 million adults around the world are obese and 41 million children younger than 5 years old are overweight. This in turn results in diabetes, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, obstructive sleep apnea, joint pains and infertility. A team of researchers from the Biomedicine Discovery Institute at Monash University in Melbourne, Australia, has recently conducted a study striving to gain a better understanding of the brain mechanisms that contribute to weight gain and loss. They have identified the mechanism through which brain controls the amount of fat that is burned after a meal. They concluded that “Faulty signals” from the brain can promote obesity. Researchers revealed the existence of a "switch" that tells the body what to do with the fat gained after food intake. If the switch is faulty, then the body is likely to store more fat, thus becoming predisposed to obesity. They have found a link between food intake and the process whereby white fat turns into brown fat. In the body, fat is stored in adipocytes or fat cells that make up the adipose tissue. These fat cells can convert from "white" (storing energy) into "brown" (releasing energy). The study found that the brain normally "instructs" the white fat cells to turn into brown fat cells after eating. This happens in response to insulin released from pancreas into the blood in larger quantities as blood sugar levels increase. On the other hand, brown fat cells are turned back into white energy storing fat cells after a period of gap during which no food is consumed. When this mechanism functions normally, it allows the body to stabilize its weight. This mechanism is akin to a switch, "reading" the insulin signals and flipping on and off as appropriate. In the case of people predisposed to excess weight gain, this switch malfunctions, becoming stuck in the "on" position. As a result of this browning is turned off all the time and energy expenditure is decreased all the time, so when you eat, you do not see a increase in energy expenditure - and that promotes weight gain. Bariatric surgery will result in increased levels of GLP 1 and PYY hormones and decreased levels of hormone called ghrelin. This in turn results in stimulation of satiety center in the brain and inhibition of hunger center. Post bariatric surgery, patients feel less hungry and so they eat less. They do not feel tired also. This results in weight loss and resolution of obesity associated comorbid conditions like diabetes, high blood pressure etc.
Tips to reduce and maintain healthy weight Do not skip meals Eat balanced diet. Include cereals , pulses, green leafy vegetables, other vegetables, moderate vegetable oil(un saturated), fruits, restricted sugar, skimmed milk and its products daily in proper quantities to meet the requirements of carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and fibre by the body. Calorie reduction is the most important requirement for weight loss. Cut down of 100 calories per day leads to 4.5kg weight reduction per year.The total calories from food should be 25-30% from fat in the form of unsaturated fat, 15% from protein and 50-60% from carbohydrates in the form of complex carbohydrates like wholegrains, vegetables and fruits.Reduction of 500calories from Basal energy expenditure helps to reduce 9 kg weight per year. Go for whole cereals and pulses like wheat, ragi, jowar, millets rather than refined ones like maida and its products like bread, biscuits, refined noodles, pastries etc Don’t be over restrictive like avoiding one or two meals and replacing it with fruits or juices. Regular physical exercise(brisk walking for 45 minutes for 5 to 7 days a week) Physical activity contributes to weight loss, decreases abdominal fat, increases cardio respiratory fitness. Exercises like aerobic exercise, swimming, bicycling, jogging, dancing leads to these benefits. Brisk walking is one of the easiest ways applicable to almost all age groups. Weight lifting can also be helpful to loose weight. You should be more active everyday by doing routine work like climbing up stairs rather than taking elevator or walking somewhere rather than driving , engage yourself in gardening, household work rather than using electronic gadgets and this can help you to burn calories without much difficulty. Watch your food portion size Inclusion of liberal amount of fresh vegetables and fruits reduces hunger pans, maintains your blood sugar and prevent constipation because of its fibre content and it is abundant in phytochemicals , antioxidants which prevent against cancer Try to include fruits with skin because deskinning removes fibre. No fat or low fat dairy and its products can be used. Drink liberal amounts of water frequently like one glass of water once in two hours intervals. Get rid of deep fried items and calorie dense foods. Avoid fatty items like mutton, beef, pork, crab, prawns. Include fish or fish oil , soya and its products weekly twice because of its omega3fatty acid content. Eggwhite can be taken daily. Healios Obesity and Diabetes Center Nutritive sweeteners: White and brown table sugars, molasses, honey, syrups are nutritive sweeteners.In addition sugar alcohols derived from fruits (or) commercially made are also nutritive sweeteners.The most common sugar alcohols include sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol and maltitol.All nutritive Sweeteners provide calories to the body and may affect your blood glucose. Non nutritive sweeteners are the true artificial sweeteners. They do not provide calories and will not influence blood glucose. These include Saccharin, Neotame, Aspartame, Sucralose, Stevia Acesulfame Potassium(Ace-k)
Liposuction is a surgical procedure aimed at removal of fat from your body. Though you can lose some weight this is not primarily intended at weight reduction and it is not a bariatric surgery. Patients with following problems are good candidates for this procedure. It helps to get rid of excess of fat from localized areas like abdomen, buttocks, hips, love handles, saddlebags, thighs, calves, back, arms and neck. Liposuction is equally effective in both men and women. Improves the contours Can be done in post bariatric patients who want body contouring. Can be done in combination with abdominoplasty. The procedure can be done in OPD basis under local anesthesia for small areas, or else regional or general anesthesia where patient needs to get admitted on the day of the procedure and can be discharged on the same day evening or on the next day. Liposuction Technique: The basic technique of liposuction involves the removal of fat via a hollow metal tube (cannula) that is passed through the fatty tissue. One of the most common types of liposuction involves the aspiration of fat by attaching a pump that generates a vacuum. This is known as suction assisted lipoplasty (SAL). In addition, a motor may be used on the cannula that causes the cannula to vacillate back and forth thus performing much of the “work” of liposuction known as power assisted liposuction (PAL). In tumescent liposuction, local anesthetic and other medications are injected into the fatty layer before suctioning excess fat. Risks & Complications The subject of risks and potential complications of surgery is best discussed on a personal basis between you and your plastic surgeon. Some of the potential complications that may be discussed with you include bleeding, infection, changes in sensation, scarring, allergic reactions and damage to underlying structures. https://youtu.be/CBFjYpUMQ8w
Does Reading Food labels help you? Yes, Reading food labels can help you to make wise food choices.Most packed foods in the grocery or departmental stores list nutrition information on the package in a section called the Nutrition Facts. The nutrition facts tells you the serving size and the amount of various nutrients such as total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, Polyunsaturated fat, Mono unsaturated fat, electrolytes like sodium, potassium, carbohydrates like simple sugar, nutritive sweeteners, artificial sweeteners with name, carbohydrate and protein sources like wheat, ragi, whey, milk solids(fat/non fat), soy protein, fibre per serving. The foods that are exempt from the label include foods in very small packages, foods prepared in the store and foods made by small manufacturers.
Abdominoplasty is a commonly performed body-contouring procedure to improve the shape and tone of your abdomen. This operation is often referred to as a ‘tummy tuck’. The operation is suitable for people with loose abdominal skin following pregnancy or significant weight loss, or if you have fatty bulges in the lower tummy that you just can’t get rid of with exercise. An abdominoplasty removes any excess skin and fat as well as improving the abdominal contour by tightening the muscle layer. Liposuction is often performed at the same time to optimise the result. The surgery results in a firmer abdomen with a more flattering contour. It is not a weight loss surgery (Bariatric Surgery). PRE OPERATIVE ASSESSMENT It is important for you to tell your surgeon the specific areas that concern you. These may include loose skin, stretch marks, fatty bulges, loose abdominal wall muscle tone and also other medical problems which can affect wound healing, such as smoking and diabetes, as well as risk factors for deep venous thrombosis (DVT or leg vein clots). People contemplating future pregnancies or significant weight loss are best to defer surgery. The expected scars, as well as the other risks of the operation will be explained. THE SURGERY Abdominoplasty is performed under a general anaesthesia. The surgical scar is at the lower most part of the abdomen thus hiding the scar. There are many variations on the procedure ranging from a mini-abdominoplasty with laparoscopic abdominal wall tightening to a full abdominoplasty involving removal of excess skin and fat, tightening of the abdominal wall muscles and repositioning of the umbilicus (belly button). AFTER THE SURGERY After the operation your abdomen or stomach will feel very tight and you may have a slightly flexed posture for a couple of weeks. This means you will be slightly bent over, not able to stand up completely straight. Most patients stay in Hospital for 2-4 days. Recovery times vary with most people being able to return to work in two to four weeks, with no sport or heavy lifting for 6-8 weeks. https://youtu.be/-PABGxNAIG4
Post Bariatric Surgery TIP 3 Know why protein rich food is important after undergoing a Bariatric Surgery. Body needs protein to build and maintain tissue and muscles. It promotes metabolic activity which in turn burns fat. It is also needed to heal wounds. Eating protein-rich foods first at every meal promotes healing from your surgery and to help you maintain lean muscle as you lose weight. So it is advised to intake protein rich food after Bariatric surgery. Ideally it is best if cooked using low-fat cooking methods. Choose lean protein like skinless chicken. Recommended protein intake is 60-65 gms of protein each day. But sometimes, it is difficult to get that amount through diet only. It can be compensated by protein drinks. But keep in mind, the extent of food your pouch can handle.
Sleeve Gastrectomy In this procedure, the fat stomach is converted into a long, thin tube ( like small intestine) by using staplers which simultaneously cut and staple the stomach on either side. The redundant portion of the cut stomach (which accounts to about 75% of its volume) is removed through the small key hole. The continuity between the esophagus (food pipe), stomach and small intestine is maintained. This is a restrictive type of operation. Malabsorption rarely occurs. https://youtu.be/GltjI9GxRVU
Bariatric and Metabolic surgery TIP 10 No weight loss results if you don't QUIT SMOKING Risk factor of Bariatric surgery almost doubles in a smoker as compared to a non smoker. That is, surgical complications become twice likely to happen in a smoker, which can lead to death. They are susceptible to experience more non fatal surgical risks too. This is one of the reasons why you must stop smoking prior to and after Bariatric /Obesity Surgery or Metabolic / Diabetes Surgery. The surgical complications associated with smoking include surgical wound infection, pneumonia, blood clots & marginal ulcers. Smokers have almost a 30 percent of higher complication rate after weight loss surgery, which is immensely higher than that of a non-smoker. After weight loss surgery, continuing to smoke could reduce your ability to lose weight and will influence your health in a negative way. If you have a history of smoking, quitting before surgery is a mandatory rule. It is best if you can maintain and quit smoking completely.
Post Bariatric Surgery TIP 4 Avoid foods that are high in fat and sugar #Healios
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